For a country to enter a state of extreme poverty, many factors must be put together at once. Based on this study, the top ten poorest countries in the world were identified.
Haiti. In a country of 10.1 million people, the poverty rate is 77%. Haiti's GDP per capita is $ 726. According to the World Bank, more than half of the country's inhabitants live on less than $ 1 a day. Only 20% of residents receive more than $ 2 per day. In 2010, unemployment in Haiti was 40%. An earthquake struck the country in 2010, from which the already impoverished state could not recover. The World Bank has estimated that the cataclysm caused damage of $ 8 billion, or 1.2 times the annual gross domestic product.
Equatorial Guinea. The poverty level in the country is also about 77%, although only 720 thousand people live here. The per capita GDP is quite high at $ 27,478. It would seem, how is this possible? After all, the GDP is significantly higher than the world average of 10 thousand dollars. The country's economy is growing mainly due to oil and gas production. But most of the inhabitants of Equatorial Guinea do not feel this, leading a subsistence economy. The government's policy is that the revenues from the sale of energy resources are spent incorrectly. And the criticism is justified given the poor health and well-being of residents in general. Oil deposits do not help Equatorial Guinea get out of the worst in life expectancy. This figure here is one of the lowest in the world and is 50.8 years. Moreover, only 56% of the population has primary education.
Zimbabwe. This country is home to about 12.7 million people, while the poverty rate is 72%. The per capita GDP is $ 776. Zimbabwe has had its independent history since 1980. Since then, one leader has actually ruled here - Robert Mugabe. His reign was marked by a program of violent land redistribution. This ultimately hit agriculture hard, an industry that provided jobs and profits from exports. Until 2009, hyperinflation reigned in the country. If in 2007 the American dollar was worth 9686 local units, then a year later 430972 local units were given for hard currency. In 1993, only 35% of the population lived below the poverty line in the country, but since then the situation has deteriorated significantly - the number of beggars has doubled.
Congo (Democratic Republic of). The African country DR Congo has a population of 67.7 million. GDP per capita is one of the lowest in the world at $ 231. 71% of the population lives below the poverty line in the country. CIA analysts note that corruption and internal conflicts have flourished in the country over the past 15 years. All this significantly undermined production, government revenues fell. Congo's external debt has skyrocketed. As a result, up to 5 million people died from disease, hunger and violence. Here the economy is also growing due to the extraction of minerals, but most of it is hidden in the shadows, which is not reflected in statistics. In the Congo, healthcare and education are at an extremely primitive level. Statistics say that out of a thousand babies, 111 die in the first year of their life. The situation is worse only in Sierra Leone. Only a third of children go to primary school, which is also the second-worst result in the world.
Swaziland. In a country with a population of one million, 70% of people live below the poverty line. The country's GDP per capita in Swaziland is $ 3,725. The economic growth of the state is limited by a combination of several factors. Among them is the strong dependence of exports on South Africa. Also, the main labor force of Swaziland is concentrated in subsistence agriculture. But here, due to overgrazing and irrational use, the soil is rather depleted. All of this hurts the country's economy, but the worst factor is poor health care. It is this barrier that prevents the population from breaking out of the shackles of poverty. Few countries have a lower life expectancy than Swaziland. Citizens live here for an average of 48 years. One of the main reasons for this low rate is the high prevalence of HIV infection in people aged 15-49 years. This figure is one of the highest in the world.
Eritrea. 69% of citizens live below the poverty line. Eritrea has over 5.4 million inhabitants, each accounting for $ 482 of GDP. Only 7 countries perform worse. Now the country has several international projects in the field of the mining industry. This gives hope for rapid economic growth. In the meantime, 80% of the population is still employed in agriculture. And it gives only 11% of Eritrea's GDP. The remaining volume falls on industry (34%) and services (55%). There is only one political party in the country - the Popular Front for Democracy and Justice. It tightly controls the use of foreign currency and lobbies in every way the enterprises owned by its members. Business in Eritrea is also bad because in 2009 the UN imposed sanctions on it. The international community has accused the government of Eritrea of supporting the rebels in Somalia. Only 33.5% of children study in primary schools in a poor country, the third lowest rate on the planet.
Madagascar. This island state looks like paradise only in the cartoon of the same name. In fact, 21.3 million people live here, 68.7% of whom are attracted by a beggarly lifestyle. There is only $ 467 of GDP per capita. But the area of Madagascar is rather big. The island is located in the Indian Ocean east of Africa. Its area is about 350 thousand square miles. Until the mid-1990s, this country followed a socialist course. But when Madagascar changed its state and economic course, it was taken over by the IMF. The fund approved the upcoming privatization and new programs. However, in Madagascar, it has proven difficult to comply with international standards. As a result, the country's economy remains dependent on agriculture. This sector employs 4 out of 5 able-bodied citizens. Per capita income in 2011 ranked Madagascar among the 11 countries with less than $ 500.
Burundi. In a country of 8.5 million people, the poverty rate is 67%. There is only $ 271 for each person, which is the second lowest figure. In 1993, political divisions between the largest ethnic groups Tutsi and Hutu led to an explosion of violence. The civil war in Burundi lasted for about 10 years. Although it officially ended with a ceasefire, nonetheless, ethnic clashes still continue. But this protracted conflict is only one of the factors of the people's stay in poverty. Burundi has rather limited reserves of natural resources. About 90% of the population is employed in agriculture, which accounts for 31% of total GDP. The World Bank reports that Burundi is one of the poorest countries in the world in terms of per capita income. The figures are lower only in DR Congo. And the infant mortality rate in Burundi remains quite high, exceeding the world average by 2 times - there are 88 deaths per 1000 newborns.
Sierra Leone. Of the 6 million population, two thirds of this country live in poverty. The level of GDP per capita here is 374 dollars. Surprisingly, Sierra Leone is rich in natural resources, fish, fertile soils. But this does not contribute to economic growth in any way. From 1991 to 2002, a civil war raged here, the political and economic situation is just beginning to stabilize. In addition, power in the country has long belonged to the military junta, which has led to an increase in unprecedented corruption. The country has high hopes for international organizations such as the International Monetary Fund. After all, this is the only way to somehow support the economy of Sierra Leone. The big problem is inflation, prices are growing by 18% over the year. It is in this country that the highest infant mortality rate in the world is 113.7 deaths per 1000 people. And life expectancy in Sierra Leone is only 47.4 years, which is the second lowest in the world.
Sao Tome and Principe. This country is home to 168 thousand people, the poverty rate is 66.2%. But the per capita GDP here is quite high - $ 1,473, which exceeds the indicators of fifty countries. This country is located on the west coast of Africa. It gained its independence in 1975, and the country's economy relies heavily on the production of cocoa. However, periods of drought and poor management hit production hard. Now Sao Tome is counting on promising oil fields discovered in the Gulf of Guinea. However, even if the extraction of black gold starts, it will only take a few years. But the small African country already has pressing problems. It is interesting that with education the situation in Sao Tome and Principe is quite favorable. Here 98.3% of children go to primary school, which even exceeds the world average of 88.8%.